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Sunday, November 21, 2010

Language, Religion, Dress and ornaments, Occupations In Magar people

Magar people are indigenous ethnic group of Nepal whose homeland extends from the western and southern edges of the Dhaulagiri section of the high Himalayas range south to the prominent Mahabharat foothill range and eastward into the Gandaki basin. In Nepal, there are good number of people identified themselves as Magar people, representing 7.14% of Nepal’s population according to the 2001 census which is the largest indigenous group in Nepal. According to the 2001 census, 74.60% of ethnic Magar were Hindus and 24.47% were Buddhists. But, recent survey taken by "Nepal Federartiom" showed that less than 30% of ethnic Magar were Hindus and over 60% claimed Buddhists. Many Magars have now been trying to preserve their identities, without the influences of the indo-aryans of Nepal. They are realising that they are different from the indo-aryans and the influences from the indo-aryans are destroying what was Magar's identity and heritage.

The Magars are divided basically into seven groups or septs: Thapa, Ale, Rana, Budhathoki, Roka, Gharti and Pun. All the seven Magar clans intermarry one with the other and [2] are officially of equal social standing.[3] Owing to the geographical position of their country, the Magars were amongst the first to receive immigrants from the plains of India. It follows, therefore, that a great number of their customs and ceremonies conform very closely to those of the Hindus of India. The Brahmans first found their way into Nepal amongst the multitudes of Indians, fleeing before the Mohammedan invasion in the twelfth century.[4] They were the first to convert the local peoples to Hinduism. It is clear that the Brahmans found in their new mountain homes many willing converts, yet a large number refused to adopt the new faith. To the former the Brahmans granted the sacred thread, but to the latter they denied it; hence there sprang up such tribes as Rokas, Thapas, Budhathokis, Ranas and Ghartis, names which are to-day found amongst the clans of both the Chettris/Kshatriyas and Magars. [4]

Of the early history of the Magars nothing whatever is known. The first mention of them is the fact that in A.D.1100, the Magar King of Palpa and Butwal, Mukunda Sen, invaded and conquered the Nepal (Kathmandu) valley.[5] It is always understood, however, that they have resided round about Palpa from time immemorial and that they were probably the earliest settlers from the north. This part of the country was formerly divided into twelve districts, each under its own ruler, being known as the Barah, or twelve, Magarant [6] or twelve Thams, the members of each supposedly being of common extraction in the male line.Some records show these twelve areas as being Argha, Gulmi, Isma, Musikot, Khanchi, Ghiring, Rising, Bhirkot, Payung, Garhung, Dhor and Satung,[7] but it is probable that some of the latter places should have been excluded in favour of Palpa, Galkot, Dhurkot, Char Hajar Parbat and even Piuthan and Salyan.[3]

The Magars of middle and western Nepal lay claim to an exciting role in Nepal's formative history. Their kingdom was one of the strongest of west Nepal in and around Palpa District during the time of the 22 and 24 rajya principalities (17th and early 18th centuries).[8] Hamilton, during his research in Nepal in 1802, came to conclusion that all the kings of 24 principalities including Sen King of Palpa in the Western Nepal were Magars.[9] Some Magars believe that they have the same origins as the Thakuris.[8][10] It is quite possible though that the aristocracy among Magars assumed and acquired the Thakuri caste and status.[8] After the fall of constitutional monarchy in Nepal, many scholars have been claiming that Nepal's former ruling Shah kings were the descendants of Magar Kings of Barah Magarath/Kali Gandaki Region.The 18th century king, Prithvi Narayan Shah, the founder of the modern Kingdom of Nepal had announced himself as a Magar king. According to Hamilton, Mincha and Khancha, the forefathers of former Shah kings of Nepal, were of Magar descent.[11] Baburam Acharya, the famous historian of Nepal, also confirmed that Nepal's former Shah kings were the descendents of Magar Kings.[12]

Many prominent historians of Nepal have claimed Aramudi, 8th Century ruler of Kali Gandaki Region, as a Magar King.[13][14][15] 'Aramudi' is named after Magar language.[16] Jayapida [782-813 AD][17] whose other name was Vinayaditta, a king of Kashmir, invaded Kali Gandaki Region, a traditional homeland of the Magars of Nepal. Aramudi resisted the invasion and virtually defeated Jayapida. [18] After capture by Aramudi, he was taken to the right banks of the Kali Gandaki river,[19] in a strongly built fort,[20] where Aramudi imprisoned him.[19] Jayapida was a powerful king of Kashmir who ruled for 31 years and had defeated the kings of Kanyakubja(Kannauj),[21] and Prayag/Allahabad in Utter Pradesh, India. He was in a conquering expedition to the valley of the Ganges.

Origin
Genetically and physically, Magar people are Mongoloid/east Asian. They are believed to have migrated from Tibet, like the Gurungs since Tibet is very close to Nepal. However, there is an interesting mythical story describing about Magar’s Origins and version of three different language groups are presented in TRIBAL ETHNOGRAPHY OF NEPAL Volume-II, by Dr. Rajesh Gautam and Asoke k. Thapa Magar.
The origin of the Magar of the Bara Magaranth (twelve Magar kingdoms east of the Kaligandaki River) is that in the land known as Seem there lived a tribe of people. There were two brothers named See Magar and Chintoo Magar who began to have differences thus while one stayed back the other headed south and after a series of migrations reached the place called Kangwachen. This is in southern Sikkim and made up of a called on whose northern end lived the Bhutia people while at the bottom or southern end settled these Magar immigrants. As the years passed the Magars became very powerful and made the northern Bhutia their vassals. At this time the Magar king named Sintoo Sati Sheng (shang) ruled in a very despotic manner and the northern bhutia conspired and assassinated him. Later on the queen of this king took revenge and poisoned 1000 Bhutia people at a place called Tong Song Fong meaning where a thousand were murdered. But later son the Bhutia won and so the Magar had to again migrate further south and from there they moved in all directions among which one froup migrated to Simrongadh. They are believed to have moved towards the Bara Magarnth area of Palpa, Gulmi, Dhor, Gherung, etc. One group moved towards the Okhaldhunga region and another group seems to have returned to the east. No dates are given.
A second Magar federation called Ather Magarat (18 Magar Kingdoms) was situated west of the Kaligandaki River, inhabited by Kham Magar. They have a different origin legend. There were four brothers, so says the legend, and one day they went hunting but got lost. They camped at a place and distributed the chores to do. From these four brothers the various jats or tribes emanated. The first tribe was the Bahun Magar (the eldest brother’s tribe), then come the Thakuri Magar (the second eldest brother), then the Khas Magar (the third brother) and lastly the Kami Magar (the youngest brother). Thus the Khas Magar became the Kham Magar of today, it is said.
The Tarali Magar are said to have originated from the union of a male whose mother had fled the region of Jumla during a war of the Kalyal kings there. It is not known who her spouse was but this said to have arrived at Tarakot in a very pregnant condition and given birth to this boy. One day this boy sees a strange phenomenon in the jungle lake where he goes with his cattle. The lake was alleged to be filled with milk and surrounded by a large forest. The boy spotted 7 shining creatures like fairies bathing in the waters of the lake. He was enthralled and come to observe them daily. One day he told his mother about this strange sight and she advised him to touch youngest of these angels so that she would became human and thus he would be able to marry her. This happened and the boy brought the beautiful damsel to his mother, but when they asked her who she was she replied in a tongue, which was incomprehensible for them. The devi was offered some bread and she uttered the words ‘Tai khe nan’ slowly they began to learn the language of this woman and Kaike was spread among themselves. The language was called Kaike meaning language of the Gods.
Bernard Pignede also collected other texts from various sources that tell the origin of Magar.

In Nepali

One of the texts which was in Nepali came from the east of Nepal where the Rais and Limbus live. It goes as follows: "The Kirati are the oldest inhabitants of Nepal. Soyenbumanu who lived in the land of Hemonta had several children, The second Thoinua, went off towards Japan. The third went towards Thailand, Burma and Cochin-China. The eldest went towards Tibet, and arrived at the northern frontier of India. His name was Munainua. He had ten children: Yoktumba, founder of the Limbus, Yakakowa, founder of the race of Rais, Lunpheba, founder of the Larus, Thanpheba, Suhacepa, founder of the Sunwars (Chepangs, Thamis), Gurupa, founder of the Gurungs, Mankapa, founder of the Magars, Toklokapa, founder of the Thakalis, Tamangs and Sherpas, Thandwas, founder of the Tharus and of the Danwars. For thirty-three generations, the Kirati governed in Kathmandu".

 Sept

It is generally known that in the structure of tribes there are the septs followed by the sub-septs, then the gotra is discerned and so on. Among the Magar people it would be proper to first state that this tribe is not divided into straight clans or septs, but into sub-tribes. This differentiation commences first with the linguistic classification, which means that there are three languages among the Magar people.
Linguistically we can categorise these clans as follows:

LanguageSepts
Magarkura speakersAle, Thapa, Rana, singjali, most of magars
Khamkura/Magar Pang speakersBudha, Gharti, Roka, Pun, Jhankri
Kaike speakersTarali Magar of Dolpa/ Budha, Gharti, Rokaya, Jhankri

 Language

Of the 1,622,421 Magar people in Nepal, 770,116 speak a Magar language as their mother tongue. The Kham Magar of Rapti Zone speak Kham language. In Dolpa District, the Magar speak Tarali or Kaike language. The Magar languages are rooted in the Bodic branch of the Tibetan family. Magarkura speakers are Ale, Thapa, Rana. Similarly Khamkura speakers are Budha, Gharti, Roka, Pun, shrees, Jhankri and Kaike speakers are Tarali Magar of Dolpa/ Budha, Gharti, Roka, Jhankri.[2] Language expert Madhav Pokhrel says that there is 16% [22] similarity between Magar Language and Hungary's Magyar Language.[23] The 1971 census put the total population of those who spoke the Magar language at 288,383, i.e. 2.49 percent of the total population of Nepal, of which more than half lived in the Western hills of Nepal.[24]
Nepali Language is said to be a mixed language between Sanskrit and Magar Language originating at Sinja/Jumla. Many Magar Lanugage words have been used while speaking and writing even today. There are many rivers, places, mountain peaks which are named after Magar Language. Some of them are: Dhaulagiri (Dhaula-difficult,gi-following down, ri-water), Chomolungma(cracked peak), Lohtse(a cone-shaped container made of corn-cob cover), Sisne Himal (a fallen head), Kanchanjangha (clear peak), Koshi (deep), Kali Gandaki/Kali Gandi(dirty water), Bheri/Bhiri (river rolling down from a cliff),Karnali (curved), Budhi Gandaki/Budi Gandi (Having a lot of water), Bagmati/Bangmadi(Bang-meadow suitable for human settlement; madi-river), Marsyangdi (serpentine river), Kot/Koi (place where government administration is conducted), Patan(meadow filled with short grass and small bushes), Dhor Patan(Dhor-extended and wide), Sinja(sin-wood; ja-pot), Galkot/Galkoi(Gal-brave), Musikot(musi-a place in the shadow), Gorkha/Garkhakoi(a small village), Gaam(a big village), Ligligkot(a high Kot), Rupandehi/Rupadihi(rupa-silver; dihi-field), Lumbini/Lungbingi(lung-stone; bingi-without), Chitwan/Chidvan(chid-dense; van-jungle), Dang(long), Salyan(paved platform for rest), Sindhuli/Singdhuli(a heap of ashes), Tilaurakot/Tilawakoi(Tilawa-herb selling place), Jhapa(a land full of soil), Tansen/Tansing(Tan-straight; sing-wood/timber), Baglung/banglung(lung-a stony), Kushma(a confluence), Dhankuta(a place above a cliff), Hile(a place that comes immediately after you climb an uphill path), Mechi(low flat land) etc.[25]
These are only a few words which are traced to Magar Language. Some scholars opine that these Magar words give valuable indication for Magarat (Magar Country) being a larger area than expected. Balaram Gharti Magar, politician and Magar scholar, opines that Magars were ruling the areas extending from Dhading to Doti when Magarat was in existence[26]. Therefore, all the places from where Magar Kings were ruling in the past are named with suffix Kot.

 Religion

The original religion or belief of Magar people are Shamanism and Tengriism. In addition to shamanistic and tengriistic practices possibly brought from Siberia, the northern Magar practice Tibetan Buddhism in which their priest is known as Bhusal. The social process of Sanskritization has drawn southern Magar populations to develop a syncretic form of Hinduism that combines animist and Buddhist rituals. Hindu Magar villagers recognize three classes of priests- Rama, Jaisi and Dhami.
Generally speaking, Buddhist and Hindu practices are practiced among Magars living in contact with Tibetan Buddhists and Indo-Aryan Hindus respectively. They are less evident in Kham hinterlands particularly in rugged 3-4,000 meter ranges along the boundary between Rukum and Pyuthan-Rolpa districts. These hinterlands are geographically and therefore culturally isolated from the beaten tracks of transhimalayan trade routes and from rice-growing lowlands colonized by Hindu Indo-Aryans.
Even though majority of Magars accepted Hindusm as a result of contact with the Khas people, some still worship Buddhist gods and their dead ancestors. They have adopted their own practice of worship. They bury their dead and they have their own belief system regarding life after death (Hitchcock, 1966:25-34). From the perspective of their faith system, they appear as worshippers of nature or as animists. They believe in shamanism and their dhami (the faithhealer or a kind of shaman) is called Dangar and their jhankri (another kind of faithhealer or shaman) is called Rama. The traditional spiritual and social leader of Magars was called Bhusal who was very influential in the early days (Bista, 1996:66). Magars have an informal cultural institution, called Bheja. Bheja performs religious activities, organizes social and agriculture-related festivities, brings about reforms in traditions and customs, strengthens social and production system, manages resources, settles cases and disputes and systematizes activities for recreation and social solidarity (Dhakal, 1996).

Dress and ornaments

The Magar of the low hills wear the ordinary kachhad or wrap-on-loincloth, a bhoto or a shirt of vest and the usual Nepali topi. The women wear the pariya or sari or lunghi, chaubandhi cholo or a closed blouse and the heavy patuka or waistband and the mujetro or shawl like garment on head. The higher altitude Magars wear an additional bhangra and the ones living in Tarakot area even wear the Tibetans chhuba. The ornaments are the madwari on the ears, bulaki on the nose and the phuli on the left nostril, the silver coin necklace and the pote (green beads) with the tilhari gold cylinder and kuntha. Magar males do not wear ornaments but some are seen to have earrings or silver and gold hanging from their ears lobes. The magar girls wear the amulet or locket necklace and women of the lower hills and the high altitude ones wear these made of silver with muga stones imbedded in them and kantha. The bangles of gold and glass are also worn on their hands along with the sirbandhi, sirphuli and chandra on their heads. These are large pieces of gold beaten in elongated and circular shapes

Occupations

Magars traditionally engage in agriculture and in the military. Magars are renowned for their honesty, discipline, and good humour, which account for their military success.Magars constitute the largest number of Gurkha soldiers outside Nepal.[27] The famous Prime Minister Bhimsen Thapa was the descendant of a Magar Thapa, as was also General Amar Singh Thapa.[28] Sarbajit Rana Magar became the head of government for a while in 1776 during the regency of Queen Rajendra Laxmi.[29] Biraj Thapa, General Abhiman Singh Rana Magar and Sarbajit Rana Magar had become Nepal Army chiefs in the past.Biraj Thapa Magar was the very first army chief in Nepal Army's history.[30] Magars are famous as gallant warriors wherever they served in the past. The Magars are prominently represented in Nepal’s military, as well as in the Singapore Police Force, the British and Indian Gurkha regiments, and they are also employed as professionals in the fields of medicine, education, government service, law, journalism, development, aviation and in business. They can be found doing well in many fields in East Asia, Australia, Europe and North America.
Dor Bahadur Bista's observation of Magar's occupation during 1960s was, "Some of the northernmost Magars have become quite prosperous by engaging in long-range trading that takes them from near the northern border to the Terai, and even beyond to Darjeeling and Calcutta. Were it not for their role in the Gurkha regiments of the Indian and British armies, their self-sufficiency might be endangered."[31] There is no doubt that those great Magars who served in different armies as brave Gurkhas sacrificing their own family life have great contribution for the betterment of Magar community. Toni Hagen, who did his field research of Nepal during 1950s, has observation about Magars' occupation and race, "Magars possess considerable skill as craftsmen: they are the bridge builders and blacksmiths among the Nepalese, and the primitive mining is largely in their hands. On the lower courses of the Bheri & Karnali rivers, a great number of Magars annually migrate to the Terai & there manufacture bamboo panniers, baskets, and mats for sale in the bazaars along the borders. In their most northerly settlement, on the other hand, the important trading centre of Tarakot on the Barbung river, they have largely adopted their way of life, their clothes, and their religion to that of the Tibetans; like the latter, they also live by the salt trade. As regard race, the Magars have almond-shaped eyes or even open eyes, whereas Mongoloid eyes are very rare."[32] Lt Gen (Retd) Y. M. Bammi (PhD), Indian Army, who served with Gurkhas for many years observes about Magars, "Magars resemble Mongols, and are considered more handsome. However, being the first to have come into contact with immigrants from India, some of their sub-clans have lost their Mongoloid looks.[33]

 Mountaineering Expeditions

Magars, serving in the British Indian Army in 19th century, were famous in scaling different mountain peaks in India and Alps. Subedar Karbir Budhathoki from 5th Gorkha Rifles (GR) scaled Mount Trishul (23,400 feet) in the Garhwal Hills, Uttarakhand, India. Parbir Thapa, Amarsingh Thapa, Karbir Budhathoki and Harkabir Thapa all from 5th GR accompanied mountaineering expeditions in the Alps on three occasions between 1891 and 1899.[34] Dr Harka Gurung confirmed that Karbir Budhathoki and Amarsingh Thapa were the pioneers of mountaineering expeditions in Nepal's history. They climbed 39 high altitude passes and 21 mountain peaks in 86 days in Karakoram mountain range. Corporal Tejbir Budha from 3rd Gorkha Rifles stayed at Chomolongma/Mt Everest at the height of 7772 metres for two nights in 1922. He was awarded Olympic Medal by French president for his courage in 1927.[35]
Sergeant Till Bikram Budhathoki (Gulmi) from 1/1 GR scaled Mt Everest on 23 May 2001 being as a team member of Indian Army Everest Expedition 2001.[36][37] On the historic occasion of Mt. Everest Golden Jubilee Celebration, three Magars from Nepalese Army scaled Mt. Everest being team members of Indo Nepal Army Everest Massif Expedition. Sergeant Lok Bahadur Magar from Okhaldhunga and Corporal Dutta Bahadur Budha from Gulmi scaled Mt Everest on 22 May 2003 and Gunner Kul Bahadur Ale Magar from Lamjung scaled on 26 May 2003.[38]

 Magar Victoria Cross (VC) Winners

The Gurkha soldiers showed outstanding courage in all theatres of the two World Wars by winning many decorations, including VCs. Hence, Nepal became famous for her Gurkha soldiers, as much as for Mt Everest.[39] On total, 5 Victoria Crosses (out of 13 VCs awarded to Gurkhas) were awarded to the Magars, who are:
  • First World War:-
    • Rifleman Kulbir Thapa,the very first Gurkha to win VC in recognition of his valor and bravery. He was from Palpa. He served in 2/3 Gurkha Regiment (GR). He received VC in France in 1915.
    • Rifleman Karanbahadur Rana, Gulmi,was from 2/3 GR. He received VC in Egypt in 1918.
  • Second World War:-
    • Subedar Lalbahadur Thapa, Nepal Tara[40] was from 2nd GR. He received VC in Tunisia in 1943.
    • Rifleman Tul Bahadur Pun,(born 23 March 1923) was from Myagdi. He served 6 GR. He received VC in Burma in 1944. He is a living recipient of the VC. He later achieved the rank of Honorary Lieutenant. In addition to the VC, Pun has been awarded 10 other medals, including the Burma Star.[41]
    • Subedar Netrabahadur Thapa,was from 5th GR. He received VC in Burma in 1944.

 Famous Magar Kings

  • Aramudi- king of Kaligandaki region/Barah Magarat, 8th century, defeated Kashmiri king Jayapida's invasion.
  • Jeetu Magar- king of Chha-Bisa Kot, Rolpa, donated present day Dang district to his son-in-law.
  • Bali Hang- king of Baldeng Gadhi, west of Palpa.
  • Mukunda Sen- king of Tansen/Palpa & Butwal, 11th century. It is said that during his time Tansen was extended up to Gorakhpur.
  • Shintoo Sati Sheng- king of Kangwachan, Sikkim.
  • Mansingh Khadka Magar-king of Gorkha, till 27 Sept 1559 AD.

 Notable Magars

  • Subarnakar Rana Magar (1000 AD) writer of 'Treatise on Buddhism'.
  • Ganga Rana Magar from Lamjung, Nepal, wrote Asta Saahasrika Pragya Paarmita in 1070[42] and Treatise on Buddhism in 1069.
  • Biraj Thapa Magar, the very first Chief of Nepalese Army, 18th Century.
  • Kaji Jayanta Rana Magar, chief of Gorkhali Troops, later chief of Nuwakot force, 18th century.
  • Kaji Sarbajeet Rana Magar, Nepalese Army chief and head of Nepal government, 19th century.
  • General Abhimansingh Rana Magar, Nepalese Army Chief, 19th Century.
  • Major General Bhagwan Singh Thapa, Rai Bahadur Sahib, Commander Kashmir State Forces, I.O.M (Indian Order of Merit), Resident of Srinagar, Kashmir State (India).
  • Col. Lacchman Singh Thapa, Adjutant Quarter Master General, Kashmir State Forces, Resident of Srinagar, Kashmir State (India).
  • Brigadier Sher Jung Thapa, Mahavir Chakra (MVC), Indian Army, resident of Dharmasala, Himachal Pradesh, (India).
  • Master Mitrasen Thapa, famous Napali folk singer, social worker, resident of Bhagsu/Dharmasala, (India).
  • Major Dhan Singh Thapa, Paramvir Chakra (PVC), Indian Army, resident of Simla, Himaachal Pradesh (India).
  • Shyam Thapa Famous Football player of India, Resident of Bhagsu/Dharmasala, (India).
  • Brigadier Sanjeev Kumar Thapa, Presently serving the Indian Army as a Brigade Commander.
  • Mr. Pyar Singh Thapa, IITian and well known Architect originally from Bhagsu/Dharamsala (India). Now residing in Italy.
  • Mr. J.P. Thapa,IITian, Retired Mech Engr.B.Tech(Hons)IIT/Kh 1961.M.Tech IIT/B 1963.Well known Engineer from Dehradun (India).
  • Arun Thapa, popular Nepali singer, singer of ritu haruma timi hariyali basanta hau.. etc.
  • Khadga Jeet Baral Magar, former IGP of Nepal Police, ambassador of Nepal to Burma/Myanmar etc.
  • Giri Prashad Budhathoki, only Magar Badahakim, Defence Minister, Honarary Major General of Nepalese Army.
  • Lt Col Lal Bahadur Pun, first Nepalese citizen to pick up the rank of Lt Col in two century old service to the British Army.
  • Pro Dr Trilok Pati Thapa,Institute of Medicine,Tribhuvan University,Kathmandu.
  • Dr Kesharjung Baral Magar, PhD, Professor, Vice Chancellor,Pokhara University, Nepal.
  • Lakhan Thapa Magar, first martyr of Nepali state.
  • Dr Harsha Bahadur Budha Magar, first PhD degree holder from Magar community,[43] famous social worker and scholar in Nepal.
  • Balaram Gharti Magar, former Cabinet minister, 11 times minister, and a famous politician.
  • Mahabir Pun, recipient Magsaysay Award, considered Asia's Nobel prize.
  • Som Ale, PhD, Famous Wildlife Biologist,the Snow Leopard Conservency's Regional Conservation Director, USA.
  • Khagendra Thapa Magar, shortest man of the world.
  • Pramila Thapa Magar, Nepal's female black belt champion and world black belt Tae kwon do sparring champion and 10-board breaking champion. She represented Nepal in the 1992 Summer Olympics.[44]

 Notes

  1. ^ 2001 Census, Nepal Government.
  2. ^ a b http://www.ukmagar.com/abt%20magar.htm, Retrieved on 02 Nov 09.
  3. ^ a b Ministry of Defence. 1965.Nepal and the Gurkhas.London:Her Majesty's:Stationery Office.p.27.
  4. ^ a b Northey, W. Brook & C. J. Morris. 1927. The Gurkhas Their Manners, Customs and Country. Delhi : Cosmo Publications. (189-190)
  5. ^ Eden Vansittart.1993(reprint).The Gurkhas.New Delhi:Anmol Publications.p.21.
  6. ^ Northey, W. Brook & C. J. Morris. 1927. The Gurkhas Their Manners, Customs and Country. Delhi : Cosmo Publications. (122-125)
  7. ^ Brian Hodgson and Captain T Smith also give this information.Eden Vansittart.1993 reprint.The Gurkhas.p.84.
  8. ^ a b c Dor Bahadur Bista.1972.People of Nepal.Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar.p.62.
  9. ^ Eden Vansittart.1993(reprint).The Gurkhas.New Delhi:Anmol Publications.p.82.
  10. ^ Rishikesh Shaha.1975.An Introduction of Nepal.Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar.
  11. ^ Ministry of Defence. 1965.Nepal and the Gurkhas. London:Her Majesty's:Stationery Office.p.23.
  12. ^ Pradeep Thapa Magar.2000.Shah Vanshiya Rajkhalak ra Magar haru. Kathmandu: Jilla Memorial Foundation.
  13. ^ Tek Bahadur Shrestha. 2003. Parvat Rajyako Aitihasik Ruprekha. Kirtipur: T.U.
  14. ^ Dr Swami Prapannacharya. (1994-95) Ancient Kirant History. Varanasi: Kirateshwar Prakashan.p.518.
  15. ^ Iman Singh Chemjong, B.K. Rana. Prof. Raja Ram Subedi, Prof. Jagadish Chandra Regmi etc support the conclusion of Aramudi being the king of Kali Gandaki Region.
  16. ^ Tek Bahadur Shrestha. Op.cit.
  17. ^ http://ikashmir.org/snwakhlu/11.html, Retrieved on 01 Nov 09.
  18. ^ A Short Note on King Aramudi and Other Magar Rulers of Kali Gandaki Region by B. K. Rana, http://www.nipforum.org/king_aramudi.pdf, Retrieved on 02 Nov 09.
  19. ^ a b Baburam Acharya, Nepalako Samkshipta Itihasa (A short history of Nepal), edited by Devi Prasad Bhandari, Purnima No. 48, Chaitra 2037 (March–April 1981), Chapter VII: Pachhillo Licchavi Rajya, (I. Sam. 642-880 Am.) (the later Licchavi Dynasty, circa A.D. 542-800). pp. 1-5.
  20. ^ P.N.K.Bamzai.1994.Culture and Political History of Kashmir.Vol 1.Ancient Kashmir.New Delhi: MD Publications Pvt Ltd.p.131.
  21. ^ a b Sufi,G.M.D.1974.Kashir a History of Kashmir.Vol 1.New Delhi:Light & Life Publishers.pp.54-55.
  22. ^ Karna Bahadur Budha Magar, Nepali-Magar Pang-English Dictionary. Kathmandu.
  23. ^ "Magar Haruko Europeli Natedar."Himal.Barsha 5.Anka 3.2052BS.p.38.
  24. ^ Rishikesh Shaha.1975.An Introduction of Nepal.Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar.p.38.
  25. ^ Balaram Gharti Magar.1999. Roots. Tara Nath Sharma (Tr.). Lalitpur: Balaram Gharti Magar.
  26. ^ Balaram Gharti Magar. Ibid.
  27. ^ Dor Bahadur Bista.1972.People of Nepal.Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar.p.664.
  28. ^ Eden Vansittart.1993 (Reprint).The Gurkhas.New Delhi: Anmol Publications.p.67.
  29. ^ Rishikesh Shaha.1975.An Introduction of Nepal.Kathmandu:Ratna Pustak Bhandar.p.32.
  30. ^ Army Chiefs' Historical Record. Army Museum. Chhauni, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  31. ^ Dor Bahadur Bista.1972.People of Nepal.Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar.p.64.
  32. ^ Tony Hagen.1970.Nepal the Kingdom in the Himalayas.New Delhi: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co.p.84.
  33. ^ Y.M.Bammi.2009.Gurkhas of the Indian Army. New Delhi: Life Span Publishers & Distributors.p.27.
  34. ^ R.D.Palsokar.1991.History of the 5th Gorkha Rifles (Frontier Force) Vol III.1858 to 1991.Shillong:The Commandant, 58 Gorkha Training Centre.p.31.
  35. ^ Himal.2050.Gorkha ra Sherpa.p.157.Lalitpur:Himal Association.
  36. ^ http://www.everestnews.com/sim.htm.accessed on 9 Feb 2010.
  37. ^ Y.M.Bammi.2009.Gurkhas of the Indian Army. New Delhi: Life Span Publishers & Distributors.p.523.
  38. ^ ‘’Everest South Side Expedition: Indian & Nepalese Army’’ http://www.k2news.com/everestnews3/indianarmy.htm, accessed on 4 Feb 2010.
  39. ^ Y.M.Bammi.2009.Gorkhas of the Indian Army.New Delhi: Life Span Publishers & Distributors.p.93.
  40. ^ Pradeep Thapa Magar.2000.Veer Haruka pani Veer Mahaveer.p.9.
  41. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tul_Bahadur_Pun, Retrieved on 10 Sep 09.
  42. ^ Tek Bahadur Shrestha. 2003. Parvat Rajya ko Itihasik Ruprekha. Kirtipur: Nepal & Asia Research Centre. p.99.
  43. ^ Dr Harsha Bahadur Budha Magar.Kiratvamsha & Magars.p.498.
  44. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taekwondo_at_the_1992_Summer_Olympics

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